Spliced Surprise (9m)

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Peals of Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

The page collects compositions of spliced surprise major with 9 methods. Spliced compositions suitable for varying numbers of methods are on the page for the largest number of methods for which they are suitable. So, for example, a series suitable for 9-10 methods will be on the page for M methods, not here, while a series suitable for 4-9 methods will be here.


5,024 Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Richard G Crosland
 234567   B  F  I  W  M  V  H  Methods                
 63254    -     2x             I.RG.AG.SGG
 23564          x           -  SA.LR.
 24365    -        -        -  TUU.RML.GL.
 32465                      -  AAI.
(43526)      -  -              G.UGSG.
 43265    -                 -    GSA.I.
 632754            -     2     MR.LI.S.T
 64235                   -     M.T
(36245)            -           RM.
(643752)        -                I.
 52364    -  2  -           -    AM.S.T.S.RI.
 35264                      -  LU.
 52436       -  -  -           G.TAUMA.TR.R
 64523       -  -           -  MLI.S.U.
(426735)        -              MG.
 56423    -  -              -    MT.S.RMLI.
 45623                      -  GSA.
 36524                -     -  UG.AG.
 53624                      -  TM.
 65324                      -  ASLA.
(45623)            3  2  3     ISA.TM.S.T.TRMLI.U.S.S.
 62453             -        -    UU.R.
 46253                      -  MGU.
 24653                      -  RGR.
 256734      x                 A.G
 276435      x                 LGS.M
(45623)      x     2           GSGU.G.GSA.
 42356    -        2        -    U.T.S.ML.
 54326             -           LI.R
(637524)     -                 MLI.
 764325   -  -                   A.S.M
 637524         -              UM.U
(35642)         -              T.
 34256    -        2  3     -    S.T.AM.T.S.LU.RM.
 23456                      -  TLT.                   
x=6ths place bob.

Contains 704 Geelong, Southall, 672 Montgomery, 544 Aldermary, Thetford, 512 Ullenhall, 480 Lithium, Redruth, 384 Ilkley, with 50 combination rollups, 146 changes of method, all the work.

Rung at Spitalfields on 8 April 2002, conducted by Stanley Jenner.

5,056 Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Richard G Crosland
 234567   M  W  B  F  I  H  Methods        
 63254    2                 ICSB.OBC.U
 52436    -  -              IURI.E.SBE
 42356       2           -  OIC.EOICSB.O.
 54326       -              BEOI.SBE
 62345    -  -           -  O.MMCM.UBOMR.
 36245                   -  UURS.
 752346            -     -  EOIC.E.
 532746      2              IOMM.BUIRE.UC
 275346      -           -  S.O.
 527346                  -  RUE.
 52364                -  -  C.EU.
 357246         -  -        EMB.SER.CR
 35264                -  -  MM.SUU.
 23564                   -  EUR.
 23645          -        -  SRM.SB.
 64235       -           -  S.IMB.
 26435                   -  SBEOIC.
 42635                   -  EUUB.
 34625       -              S.M
(567432)    -     -  -      M.BE.MRI.
 56423                -  -    UESUSS.OI.
 62534          -           URO.R
 45623             -  -  -  RO.RUCI.MI.
 64523                   -  RMI.
 34256    -  2           -  CS.IC.RUE.CS.
 45362          -           R.I
 237465            -        B.E
 23456                -  -  RRSRM.MCM.     

640 Runnymede; 608 Eccleston, Mangotsfield, Springfield, Uppingham; 576 Irthlingborough; 480 Brentwood, Chesterfield; 448 Okeford, 146 changes of method, 47 combination rollups, all the work.

5,408 (5,280, 5,152, 5,024) Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Albert J Pitman and David W Beard (arr)
23456  M  B  W  H    8 (5152)        9 (5408)     
23564  2     2  -    L.B.WWWWW.B.L. L.B.WWWWW.B.L.
65432  -     -       W.C.W          W.C.W
45236 [-]            W[.CL          W[.CL
53462 [2]    2       L.B.]C.B.L     L.B.]YYY.B.L
24365  -        -    L.DL.          L.DL.
32465  3        -    PSC.B.LLS.DL.  L.B.LLS.DL.
63425        -  3    LC.W.B.B.      LC.YY.B.B.
43265        2  -    LS.B.W.        LS.B.W.
62534  -     -       SPP.D.W        CPP.D.PWYP
52364        2  -    WC.B.L.        WC.B.L.
35264           -    PDCCL.         PDCCL.
45362     -  -       SD.BBB.W       SD.BBB.W
26354  -     -  -    CNC.C.W.       CNC.C.W.
32654           -    DCLSS.         DCLSS.
63254           -    SSLCD.         SSLCD.
52436  -     -       W.C.CNC        W.C.CNC
42356  -  -     -    W.BBB.DS.      W.BBB.DS.
35426        -  -    LC.L.          LC.L.
65324  2             L.B.PW         L.B.PW
43526  -        -    W.DDNN.        YY.DDSN.
54326           -    WWP.           WWP.
54263  2     2  -    L.B.N.B.L.     L.B.N.B.L.
25463           -    PWW.           PWW.
62453        -       NNDD.W         NSDD.YY
42563        2  -    WP.B.L.        WP.B.L.
64523        -       LP.NNN         LP.NNN
32546  -     -  -    NNN.P.L.       NNN.P.L.
53246        3  -    LD.SLL.B.CSP.  LD.SLL.B.L.
25346           -    LDPPS.         LDPPC.
65243  2        3    W.B.SL.B.B.    W.B.SL.B.B.
34256  -     -  -    W.C.CDP.       YY.C.CDP.
64352  2             L.B.CW         L.B.CW
23456  -        -    W.DW.          PYWP.DW.      

The 8 method arrangement contains 960 London, 928 Watford, 768 Bristol, 672 Cambridge, 512 Dorchester, 448 each Pudsey and Superlative, 416 Lincoln (N), 117 com, and 62 cru's. The 9 method arrangement contains 1024 London, 800 Watford, 768 Bristol, 640 Cambridge, 512 each Dorchester and Pudsey, 416 Cassiobury, 384 Superlative, 352 Lincoln(N), 123 com, and 59 cru's. For 5024 (8) or 5280 (9) omit bracketed calls and leads. All arrangements are all the work.

Published in The Ringing World (1980, page 684) and A Collection of Compositions of Spliced Surprise (1996).

5,472 Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Albert J Pitman
23456  M  B  W  H   Methods    
23564  2     2  -   L.B.N.B.L.
52364           -   PWW.
65324        -      NSDD.YY
35264        2  -   WP.B.L.
63254        -  3   LP.NNN.B.B.
45236  -     -  -   NNN.P.L.
24536        3  -   LD.SLL.B.L.
32546        -      LD.L
24365  2     2      L.B.YYY.B.L
53462  -        -   L.DL.
45362  3        -   L.B.LLS.DL.
64352        -  3   LC.YY.B.B.
34562        2  -   LS.B.W.
65243  -     -      CPP.D.PWYP
25463        2  -   WC.B.L.
42563           -   PDCCL.
32465     -  -      SD.BBB.W
56423  -     -  -   CNC.C.W.
45623           -   DCLSS.
64523           -   SSLCD.
25346  -     -      W.C.CNC
54326  -  -         W.BBB.DS
54263  2     2  -   L.B.WWWWW.B.L.
62345  -     -      W.C.W
43526  -     -      W.C.W
63425  2            L.B.CW
52436  -     -  -   PYWP.D.PPC.
62534  2        3   W.B.SL.B.B.
35426  -     -      YY.C.CDP
42356        -  -   LC.L.
62453  2            L.B.PW
34256  -        -   YY.DDSN.
23456           -   WWP.        

1024 London, 832 Bristol, 800 Watford, 640 Cambridge, 512 Dorchester, Pudsey, 416 Cassiobury (Y), 384 Superlative, 352 Lincoln (N). 125 com, all the work, 58 cru's. Tittums.

Published in The Ringing World (1956, page 522) and A Collection of Compositions of Spliced Surprise (1996).

5,024 Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Richard G Crosland
 23456    M  B  W  H   Methods       
 42356             -   APS.
 34256             -   PPN.
 52643    -     -      BLMLN.NB.M
 64523          -  -   SNRAC.L.
 26543          -      NR.AA
 36245    2            R.LASRCP.CL
 42563    -     -      ALALS.C.PSP
(64523)         -      MC.
 56423    3        -    AC.B.B.MS.
(62453)         2      BC.NBM.
 62534    2     2  -    PRSS.B.S.B.L.
 56234             -   PPLSS.
 25634             -   NLM.
 63254          -  -   LAL.NRAC.
 26354             -   NAP.
 32654             -   ACMSNR.
(56423)   -     -      M.P.
 32465    -     -  -    SA.ACMSN.L.
 43265             -   CMSNRA.
 52364    -        -   R.LS.
 35264             -   NBAA.
 23564             -   MCL.
 24365    2        -   R.SSCRP.PL.
 63425          2  2   MC.B.R.B.
 46325             -   NBM.
 62345    -  -         R.BBB.PP
 53246    -        -   L.MRN.
 25346             -   MAAP.
 32546             -   LRACMSN.
 35426          -  2   CR.M.B.
 23456          -      PR.B          

640 Adelaide, 544 Bristol, 512 Cambridge, 576 London, 544 Lindum (M), 512 Brighton (N), 544 Pudsey, 544 Rutland, 608 Superlative. 141 com, all the work, 82 cru's.

Published in A Collection of Compositions of Spliced Surprise (1996).

5,056 Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Graham A C John
 23456    M  B  W  H   Methods       
 42356             -   RSCYP.
 63254    -        -   CNC.US.
 26354             -   UPCYN.
 26543       -     -   RRR.NS.
 52643             -   PSLNC.
 65243             -   LUUULLL.
 63542       -  -  -   SP.BBB.R.
 25346    -     3  -   NPS.Y.B.B.YSP.
 32546             -   LPU.
 53246             -   UCU.
 54632    2     -  -   NPC.B.P.R.
 32654       3     -   BBBB.PR.UY.BBL.
 56423    -     -      U.N.PSN
 42563          -  -   CNPC.L.
(64523)         -      NU.
 23645    2     -       YNLS.B.Y.L
 63425          2  -   PR.YSRSS.U.
 46325             -   YNRCC.
 32465          -  -   NYNY.U.
 43265          3  -   LC.B.B.R.
 52364    -        -   R.UN.
 35264             -   RPR.
 23564             -   RYYCS.
 24365       -  -  -   SP.BCYC.U.
 62345          -      YL.U
 34625          -  -   LN.SNS.
 54263    -     2  -   L.S.B.L.
 25463             -   LLP.
(62453)         -      CU.
 34256    -        -    PRYS.CNYC.
 23456             -   RRY.          

576 Cambridge, Yorkshire, Lincolnshire (N), Rutland, Superlative, 544 Bristol, London, Pudsey, Uxbridge. 133 com, all the work, 109 cru's. Queens, Tittums.

Published in The Ringing World (1994, page 47) and A Collection of Compositions of Spliced Surprise (1996).

5,184 (5,056) Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Donald F Morrison and Bernard H Taylor (arr) (no. 107)
23456  B  M  W  H  Methods     
52436        -     RS.L
42635     -        NYS.CL
23564  2        -  YN.LP.BBBRUP.
36245  -           CP.PC
24365        - [-] N(SSY).R.   
Repeat five times, omitting [-] from alternate parts.

Contains 768 each Pudsey and Superlative, 576 each Bristol, Cambridge, Lincolnshire (N), London, Rutland and Yorkshire, and 192 Uxbridge, with 132 changes of method.
Reduce to 5,056 by calling R for (SSY) in two parts; contains 768 Pudsey, 640 each Rutland and Superlative, 576 each Bristol, Cambridge, Lincolnshire and London, 512 Yorkshire, and 192 Uxbridge, with 128 changes of method.
Both arrangements contain all 24 each 5678s off the front and 6578s off the front, 21 each 56s and 65s, and 12 each 8765s off the front and 8756s off the front.

Rung at Burghill on 1 December 2005, conducted by Frederick Shallcross.

5,024 Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Richard I Allton and Graham A C John
23456   M  B  W  H  Methods             
43652   -           YNY.AA
26354   -        -  CA.PR.
24653      -  -  -  PP.BBB.YNS.
26543         -  2  LC.AN.B.
35642   -        -  SSS.CPA.
43526   -  2        PRYSRP.BBB.LY.CC
43265   2     2  -  PNC.B.LLRLL.PRYCY.L.
35264   -        2  L.ANP.B.
25463   -           R.SYNS
45362   -           L.YSA
23564   -        -  SA.YCA.
24365   2        -  NCY.YNRPN.CCYS.
36245         -  -  PR.L.
23645            -  LSPNP.
34625         2  3  SNA.B.L.B.B.
62345         -  -  ALLAC.L.
32465         2  -  CYA.SPLA.R.
63254   2     2  2  R.B.RAR.B.NNP.B.
42356   -        -  L.SCNY.
34256            -  RNR.
25346         -  -  SNYC.R.
53246            2  RYR.B.
24536         -  -  RS.PSN.
45236            2  CYPRC.B.
23456         -  -  AA.L.               

Contains 608 Rutland; 576 London, Yorkshire; 544 Ashtead, Bristol, Cambridge, Lincolnshire (N), Pudsey, Superlative; 135 changes of method, 104 combination rollups, all the work.

Published in The Ringing World (2003, page 425).
Rung at North Elmham on 3 March 2002.

5,184 Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Julian Morgan
2345678  M  B  W  H  Methods    
65432    -     -  -  R.Y.L.
24536    -        -  R.BN.
24365       -    (-) SC.YP(.)
4235867     -  -  -  CS.PLA.NA.B
Nine-part, calling (-) in parts 1, 4, and 7 only.

Contains 198 combinations of 5678 in 5678, including 12 56's and 15 65's; 297 combinations of 5678 in 1234, including 18 5678's and 12 6578's; and Whittingtons. Contains 576 each Ashtead, Bristol, Cambridge, Lincolnshire (N), London, Pudsey, Rutland, Superlative and Yorkshire, with 161 changes of method.

Published in The Ringing World (1999, page 1086).
Rung at Shalford on 9 September 1999.

5,184 Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Donald F Morrison (no. 3994)
23456  B  M  W  H
43652     -        R.SL
43526  -        -  CY.PRAL.
26354  2           BNSPR.LN.YP
52364        -     CNA.B
43265     -    [-] CNC.SR.
Repeat five times, omitting [-]
from alternate parts.

Contains 768 each Cambridge, Lincolnshire (N) and Rutland, 576 each London, Pudsey and Superlative and 384 each Ashtead, Bristol and Yorkshire, with 156 changes of method.

Rung at Leeds, Yorkshire (St Anne) on 2 April 2012, conducted by Neil Donovan.

5,184 Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Donald F Morrison (no. 3995)
 23456   M  W  B  H
(23564)     -  -     RS.YYL.
 23645      -  -      BSCC.PNAP.A
 45362         2     YN.LP.BBR
 56423         -     A.CS
 32465   -  -    [-] L.N.R.
Repeat five times, omitting [-]
from alternate parts.

Contains 576 each Ashtead, Bristol, Cambridge, Lincolnshire (N), London, Pudsey, Rutland, Superlative and Yorkshire, with 138 changes of method.

5,024 Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Donald F Morrison (no. 3996)
23456  M   W   H
52634  2   -   s   R.B.S.L.
56234     (ss) s   LY(.B.)PA.
34265 [s]  -       CSN.C.B
Repeat eleven times, calling - for [s]
in parts 6 and 12.
Omit (ss) and associated lead of Bristol
after the first part.

Contains 800 Bristol, 768 each Cambridge, London and Superlative and 384 each Ashtead, Lincolnshire (N), Pudsey, Rutland and Yorkshire, with 144 changes of method.

Rung at Marton Bigot (Pig-le-Tower) on 27 June 2009, conducted by Peter W J Sheppard.

5,152 Spliced Surprise Major (8–9 methods)

Donald F Morrison (no. 6776)
           8 methods      9 methods
  2345678  Cambridge      Cambridge
- 3578264  Superlative    Superlative
  8654327  Superlative    Superlative
  4267835  Cambridge      Cambridge
  7325486  Yorkshire      Yorkshire
  5836742  Pudsey         Cambridge
  6482573  Lincolnshire   Lincolnshire
  2743658  Pudsey         Pudsey
- 7358264  Lincolnshire   Pudsey
  8634725  Yorkshire      Lincolnshire
  4265873  Pudsey         Pudsey
  5723486  Yorkshire      Yorkshire
- 7386542  Bristol        Bristol
- 8736542  Rutland        Rutland
  3857264  London         London
  5328476  Rutland        Rutland
  2543687  London         London
  4265738  London         London
  6472853  Rutland        Rutland
  7684325  London         London
- 3876542  Cambridge      Cambridge
  6482357  Lincolnshire   Yorkshire
  2547638  Superlative    Glasgow
- 5738264
Repeat six times.

The eight method version contains 896 London, 672 each Cambridge, Lincolnshire, Pudsey, Rutland, Superlative and Yorkshire and 224 Bristol, with 146 changes of method and all the work of every method for every bell.
 
The nine method version contains 896 each Cambridge and London, 672 each Pudsey, Rutland and Yorkshire, 448 each Lincolnshire and Superlative and 224 each Bristol and Glasgow, with 139 changes of method and all the work of every method for every bell.


Eight method version rung at New York City on 15 June 2014, conducted by Timothy J Barnes.

5,056 Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Richard I Allton
23456  M  B  W  H Methods               
35426        2     RY.B.PCN
42356        -  -  YNCC.R.
63254  -     3  -  CSY.P.B.GYNG.R.
26354           -  YCPRG.
32654           -  GR.
34256  2     3  -  NNC.B.P.PLSPS.GL.NSS.
36452     -  -  -  SC.BBB.GNGG.
34562        -  2  GYGSN.L.B.
25463  -        -  L.YSYP.
45623  -  -     -  YCG.BBB.NP.
56423           2  RPR.B.
62534     -        NG.PC
62345  2     2  -  L.B.LLRLL.GYSC.L.
36245           -  RCL.
56342  2           R.NYGS.LP
24365  -     -  -  NSP.N.L.
32465           -  GPNP.
35264  2        -  R.NGCS.CL.
52364           2  PYYSYYC.B.
43265  -        -  CPS.YR.
26435        -  -  RC.L.
64235           2  LRS.B.
23645        -  -  LP.R.
45236  2     -     NSG.B.RRLRR.CCY
23456        -  -  PNSN.R.              

Contains 640 Rutland; 576 each Cambridge, Lincolnshire (N), London and Pudsey; 544 each Glasgow, Superlative and Yorkshire; and 480 Bristol; with 136 changes of method, all the work of each method for every bell and 87 combination rollups.

Published in The Ringing World (1999, page 942) and A Collection of Compositions in Popular Major Methods (2001).
Rung on handbells at Reading on 2 June 1999.

5,024 Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Graham A C John
 23456    M  B  W  H   Methods           
(23456)   -  -  -      R.BBB.LR.
 35264       -          CYL.SC
 24653    -     -  2   PYG.C.SPP.B.
 62453             -   GGCGN.
 42356    -     ss     L.P.GR.R
 32654    -            SNS.LY
 45623    -     -  -   R.S.L.
 34526    2        s   BLRC.CYPRY.RN.
 45326          -s s   CSPN.GL.L.
 43526             s   PSRSP.
 46325       -  -  -   PN.GGGS.L.
 32465          -  -   PR.R.
(26354)      -         GGG.
(52364)   ss    -       LPS.YGYS.Y.
 54263       -  -  -    YLN.BBB.L.
 24365    -            L.G
 65243    2     -      R.B.Y.B
 52643             2   PSGC.B.
 36245    -        -   R.YCPN.
 65432    -  2  -  -   GPGY.BBB.RS.BBB.NNP.
 35246    -     s      L.Y.SCY
(45236)         s      YCCY.
 62534    -        -    NGN.RS.
 56234    ss       -   L.RRY.CL.
 25634             -   CYLCN.
 64352    -     -  2   NNG.N.SSN.B.
 23456    -        -   PSP.RC.           

608 Glasgow, 576 Bristol, Rutland, Superlative, Yorkshire, 544 Pudsey, London, 512 Cambridge, Lincolnshire (N). 128 com, all the work, 62 cru's. Tittums.

Published in The Ringing World (1986, page 108) and A Collection of Compositions of Spliced Surprise (1996).

5,184 Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Julian Morgan
23456  B  M  W  H  Methods        
24536        -  2  RP.R.B.
43265 (-)          NC(.)GGP
42356  2  -  -  -  YY.NL.BSS.C.L. 
Nine-part, calling (-) in parts 1, 4, and 7 only.

Contains 361 combinations of 5678 in 5678, including 15 each 56's and 65's; 171 combinations of 5678 in 1234, including 15 5678's and 9 6578's; Tittums and Whittingtons. Contains 576 each Bristol, Cambridge, Glasgow, Lincolnshire (N), London, Pudsey, Rutland, Superlative and Yorkshire with 134 changes of method.

Published in The Ringing World (1999, page 1086).

5,376 (5,056) Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Donald F Morrison (no. 1312)
 23456   B  M  W  H  Methods   
 65432      -  -  -  L.C.(NNP).
(35246)     - [s]    BB.P.
 34265   -  -         SSR.GY.G 
Repeat eleven times, omitting [s] from parts 6 and 12.

Contains 768 each Bristol, Glasgow, Lincolnshire (N), Pudsey and Superlative, and 384 each Cambridge, London, Rutland and Yorkshire, with 131 changes of method.
Reduce to 5,056 by replacing (NNP) with one lead of Rutland in parts 2, 4, 6, 9 and 11. Contains 768 each Bristol, Glasgow and Superlative, 608 Pudsey, 544 Rutland, 448 Lincolnshire (N), and 384 each Cambridge, London and Yorkshire, with 126 changes of method. While other arrangements of the reduction are possible, to ensure truth great care must be exercised in the placement of the singles and which parts are reduced.

5,120 Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Donald F Morrison (no. 6714)
23456  M  W  B  H
42356           -  RSYNG.
34256           -  CLSGGP.
65243  -  -     -  L.Y.R.
26543     3     -  NPCP.B.YNRSY.L.
42635     -  -  -  BS.GC.BBR.
Repeat four times.

Contains 640 each Bristol, Glasgow, Rutland, Superlative and Yorkshire and 480 each Cambridge, Lincolnshire (N), London and Pudsey, with 145 changes of method, and all the work of every method for 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.

Rung at Broadclyst on 25 February 2017, conducted by David A Warwick.

5,184 Spliced Surprise Major (9 methods)

Marcus C W Sherwood
23456    M  B  W  H   Methods   
65432    -     - [-]  SYG.N.L.
65324       -     -   NG.YS.
53624    3        2   R.B.B.PL.B.
53246       -     -   CG.YP.
25346             -   RCR.
32546             -   NPSCL.    
6 part. Omit [-] in alternate parts.

576 Bristol, Cambridge, Glasgow, London, Lincolnshire (N), Pudsey, Rutland, Superlative, Yorkshire. 155 com, 72 cru's. Tittums.

Published in The Ringing World (1979, page 752) and A Collection of Compositions of Spliced Surprise (1996).

5,184 Spliced Surprise Major (8–9 methods)

Donald F Morrison (no. 7946a)
23456  M  B  W  H
63254     -  -     YC.WWC.B
63542     -     -  LEL.D.
24536  -     -  -  DBD.Y.W.
52436           -  LSSYS.
24365     2  - [-] SC.YE.BW.E.
Repeat five times, omitting [-]
from alternate parts.

Consists of Project Pickled Egg methods, including all of the “Core Seven”.

The eight method version contains 768 each Cornwall (W), Superlative and Yorkshire and 576 each Bristol, Cambridge, Deva, Lessness (E) and London, with 137 changes of method.

The nine method version contains 768 each Superlative and Yorkshire, 576 each Bristol, Cambridge, Cornwall (W), Deva, Lessness (E) and London and 192 Kenninghall, with 137 changes of method.

Either version contains 21 each 6s and 65s, 15 each 8765s off the front and 8756s off the front, 12 each 5678s off the front and 6578s off the front, and 147 runs of four or more consecutive bells either at the back (75) or at the front (72).